The British demanded that Biden remain silent after the warnings to Putin


Readers The British edition of the Daily Mail criticized US President Joe Biden for his warning to his counterpart from the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin.

The comments of the British appeared on social networks. “I want Joe to stop talking” – wrote one user.

There were also those who demanded that Biden be removed from office before he drags the world into all-out war.

“Don't tease the bear!” – another user pointed out.

Previously, on September 30, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed agreements to accept four new regions and create new entities within Russia. In his speech, Putin emphasized that the choice of the people of Donetsk, Lugansk, Zaporozhye and Kherson was made and Russia will not betray them. He warned that Russia would defend the new territories with all available means.

Later, US President Joe Biden said that the US would continue to recognize Ukraine within its former borders. And Biden also said that Washington and its partners are fully prepared to defend every inch of the territory of the North Atlantic Alliance. He also urged Putin to set the record straight.


General Tarakanov described the picture of rescue in case of nuclear bombing

The USSR should have kept 80% of the population

The world is seriously talking about the nuclear threat. What can we all expect in the near future? We heard his opinion with a unique specialist – Major General Nikolai Dmitrievich Tarakanov, one of the leaders of the liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in 1986.

Photo: Artem Makeev

Nikolaj Tarakanov passed through Chernobyl. He led an operation to remove highly radioactive elements from particularly dangerous areas. The last of the military leaders of that time who is alive today.

On the territory of the Soviet Union, he built protective structures in case of nuclear war, he dealt with civil defense issues.

He was seriously irradiated. He survived. He lived to be 88 years old. A few years ago, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. He became the prototype of one of the heroes of the recent American series “Chernobyl”, declared the best feature film on this topic. He wrote 35 books of memoirs and reflections.

– Nuclear conflict has been taken very seriously since the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. No one doubts that these are not empty words and no bravery.

In 1961, the United States deployed medium-range missiles in Turkey that could easily hit the Soviet Union, including Moscow and major industrial centers. Therefore, in the same year, the country's leadership created the Committee for Civil Defense, headed by Marshal Chuikov. I started working under him. So the nuclear threat seemed very real in my youth.

< /p>Nikolai Tarakanov today. One. Photo: From personal archive

– Throughout our territory, protective structures and also command posts, from where control would be carried out, were being built at a very fast pace. And not only for the top management in Moscow, in cities with more than a million people, their own command posts were created. Communication, water, sewage, food supplies for three hundred days. Enterprises, especially defense ones, had their own anti-aircraft shelters. Their condition was regularly checked. And if something was wrong, the culprits were mercilessly punished. So the industry would survive and continue to function.

– It was estimated that up to 80% of the population could be saved. Not everyone had to stay in the big cities. Some would be evacuated outside the city, to former pioneer camps and recreation centers. Many potential flak shelters had a dual purpose. Let's say the subway. Or maybe there are garages for cars in my area, they can be converted. An hour is designated for the removal of the equipment. At the helm of every city is a person, even a group of people, who are responsible for making it all work like clockwork. In case of emergency, each mayor will combine his position with the function of the head of civil defense.

– I think that under Putin everything should be completely fine. Even under Shoigu, a special department of the Ministry of Emergency Situations was called to control and monitor this system throughout Russia.

Photo: Natalia Muschinkina

Of course, I have long since retired, but there are things that simply cannot be otherwise. That's what they taught us. At one time, I worked as a group leader for the construction of protective structures in the Saratov region, so I know what I'm talking about. Sometimes you drive down the streets of Moscow and you see some strange structures sticking out of the ground right in the middle of the road. These are deflectors – devices installed above the ventilation ducts of anti-aircraft shelters. To breathe.

“Washington, Nebraska, San Francisco”

– Bookmarks usually last for several days. Of course, the survivors will not run up immediately, they will wait for the radioactive fallout to settle. You must stay underground for about a week.

By the way, with the help of intelligence, in those years we obtained a map on which the Americans planted the points of possible nuclear strikes on the USSR. That means we knew their behavior pattern. How many times is it planned to hit Moscow, Leningrad, Voronezh, etc. Therefore, at the command staff exercises, they calculated in advance the potential losses of industry, agriculture, percentages of the destruction of cities and so on.

– About 60 percent. There were government decrees signed by Brezhnev and after Kosygin, according to which duplicate production facilities were also built ahead of time. Which will continue to operate under extraordinary circumstances. In the same Voronezh, where I come from, I personally went to the underground and checked them.

– The most important wartime products. There are dozens of such productions. As long as they are preserved. Of course, I don't know the current state of affairs in this area, but I don't think it was all left to chance.

– Of course it was. Washington DC, Nebraska, North Carolina, South Carolina, California, San Francisco… All their decision centers are also targeted.

– Yes, they have complete confusion and fiction in this matter. I repeat, serious protection existed only in the Soviet Union. In America, when I was treated there for radiation sickness after Chernobyl already in the Yeltsin era, I was very interested in the question of how they are doing with civil defense. Wherever I've been—Pennsylvania, Nebraska, California, and wherever I've wanted to see an air defense system. I didn't like her. If something happened, God forbid, of course, our survival rate should be much higher.

– They knew full well that we could be the first to launch a pre-emptive strike. We have it, it's included in the nuclear doctrine. Putin has repeatedly stated that under conditions of general readiness, we can be the first to strike. It was the same in the Soviet Union.

“The only thing to fear in nuclear power plants is sabotage”

– In 1986 we advised the guys , who were sent to the Chernobyl zone, precisely on the example of Zaporizhia. This station is six times larger than Chernobyl. And the only one in the world where there are six blocks. So you can imagine the scale of what can happen.

Chernobyl, and indeed all of humanity, was simply lucky that only the fourth power unit was damaged in 1986. Otherwise, we wouldn't be talking to you today, I repeated it more than once at lectures in America where I was invited.

I can only say that the protection of our nuclear power plants against possible external strikes was very strong. I don't think there is any danger of a direct hit either. All this is planned by the designers. The situation is more forced from the outside. Although, of course, there is no need to rattle the saber one more time and provoke. And you should only fear internal destruction due to possible sabotage.

– Ralph Ineson invited me to visit him three times later. She called. But I didn't go. Where – with all my diseases? Although relations between our states were still good at that time. So I didn't go only for health reasons.

Frame from the Chernobyl series. General Tarakanov played by Ralph Ineson

When the series came out, all the federal channels immediately rushed to me, the Americans asked for an interview. I was constantly asked, “Did you watch this movie alone?”

Why should I watch it? The whole of Chernobyl passed through my soul during the three months of the trip. By the way, when they say that there was no mobilization in Soviet times – there was, and it was in Chernobyl. In fact, it can be called “partial mobilization”. It affected over half a million people from all over the Soviet Union. The military registration and conscription offices were primarily concerned with sending people to be liquidated, they “removed” storekeepers, and conscriptions were delivered to homes. Everything was very clear and fast and no one was indignant or refused. For which they are very grateful. For saving the world.

“I can advise”

When we live most of our lives, it's not so scary to watch with tomorrow, how painful it is to remember the past.

Now Tarakanov has finished writing his 35th book. It is dedicated to his beloved wife Zoya, who died five years ago.

Together with his beloved wife in the 1980s Photo: From the personal archive

“My dear friend” – hundreds of letters from General Nikolai Tarakanov to his wife from his business trips in Chernobyl. He still keeps them all.

Zoya Ivanovna died less than a year before their 60th diamond wedding anniversary.

“As a general, a bearer of orders, I was assigned a place in the Troekur cemetery long ago. I had to leave first, of course. I am a man. We often went there with her, we chose the marble monument project. I'm going alone now, but there's room for two,” he sighs.

And shortly before his wife's death Photo: From personal archive

He shows me numerous portraits of his wife hanging on the wall in the living room. And a book of memoirs about her.

And I understand that, first of all, he defended this big world for the sake of the world of his loved ones – his wife, his daughter.

< p>“You wake up at night and all you think about is, God forbid, it happens again.” God forbid! The first time was absolutely terrible. Then he calmed down a little, yet the years pass, much is forgotten, softened. And here it is again.”

Recently, Tarakanov sent a telegram to Putin. By the way, he was his confidant in the very first election in 2000.

He wrote that he has decades of work in favor of the country's nuclear security. Intelligence and experience are never superfluous.

That a committee for the defense of the state should be formed and the most recognized experts in the field should be included in its composition. Many have already left, but there are those who still remain. Don't they remember the past?

“So are you ready to mobilize?” – I ask Tarakanov.

“There is no way to mobilize. Age is not the same. But I can advise.”

P.S. When the article was ready for publication, I called General Tarakanov to warn against its publication and found that he had been rushed to the hospital. It turned out badly.


Prigozhin suggested mobilizing the security forces first

Photo: Gennady Cherkasov

The press service of Concord reported that its head Yevgeny Prigozhin agreed with the head of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov, on the issue of the mobilization order in Russia, and also said that the army and representatives of law enforcement agencies should be called in first.

The company's statement to the social network includes Prigozhin's answer to the question, who should be mobilized first. The first, in his opinion, should be retired soldiers – “those who have received benefits from the Ministry of Defense and from their country all their lives.” “, – Prigozhin said.

Also, in his opinion, “representatives of state structures and law enforcement agencies” should be at the forefront of mobilization. Prigozhin emphasized that he cannot disagree with Kadyrov on this issue.

“And last but not least, to mobilize those who have never held a machine gun in their hands,” Prigozhin added, indicating that they include former conscripts who had no combat experience.


China and India refused to vote in the UN Security Council on Donbass


India and China refused to vote in the UN Security Council condemning the annexation of the DLR, LPR, Zaporozhye and Kherson regions to Russia.

According to RIA Novosti, PRC Permanent Representative Zhang Jun said that the parties to the conflict should resolve the conflict through diplomacy and that the actions of the UN should help solve the crisis, not the other way around. India's representative at the UN said that escalation of rhetoric is not in anyone's interest and also noted that there is a need to negotiate.

Earlier, the foreign ministers of the G7 countries said that they would never recognize the entry of the Donbass republics and two regions into the Russian Federation.


Radio intercept data: APU will suffer significant losses

Photo: Global Look Press

APUs carry heavy losses to the south, but no reinforcements. This is evidenced by radio intercept data. The soldiers' conversations were captured in the Kherson region near the village of Pravdino. They are reported to be soldiers of the 5th Mechanized Company of the 53rd Brigade.

From the interviews, it appears that there are many wounded in the unit. Some of them are hard. At the same time, the warriors are ready to retreat, but they are afraid of being shot by their own army. Apparently that's why in the second intercepted episode they warn that they are retreating on the right flank and ask them not to fire.

From another conversation it appears that ammunition is running out, people are falling – there are many wounded and killed – but still no reinforcements . The soldiers are sure that the authorities are to blame for everything.

Ukrainian troops have been trying to conduct a counter-offensive in the Kherson-Nikolayev direction since the end of August. The Russian military department claims that all attacks are successfully repulsed. The Armed Forces of Ukraine suffered heavy losses in manpower and equipment. There were reports that there were not enough beds for the wounded in the nearest big city – Nikolaev. This despite the fact that almost all civilian hospitals have been converted for military use.


South Korea refuses to recognize Russia's new regions


B South Korea has refused to recognize the accession of the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics, as well as the Kherson and Zaporozhye regions to Russia, the country's foreign ministry said in a corresponding statement.

Seoul also does not recognize referendums held in the former regions of Ukraine.

A statement by South Korea's foreign ministry accuses Russia of violating the UN Charter. “The sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of Ukraine must be respected,” the message reads.

Referendums on joining Russia were held in the above-mentioned regions from September 23 to 27. In the DPR, 99.23% of those who voted to join the Russian Federation, in the LPR – 98.42%, in the Kherson region – 87.05%, in the Zaporozhye region – 93.11%.

30 . September, President In Russia, Vladimir Putin and the heads of the DLR, LPR, Zaporozhye and Kherson regions signed agreements on the joining of the regions to Russia and the creation of new entities within the Russian Federation.


The Bundestag rejected a proposal to increase military support for Ukraine and the supply of tanks

Photo: Global Look Press

Members of the German Association The Bundestag rejected a proposal by the CDU/CSU bloc to increase military support for Ukraine and organize tank deliveries, Die Zeit reports.

The report said 179 MPs voted for the resolution, 476 against. , one MP abstained from voting.

According to the text of the document, the CDU/CSU faction insisted on “immediate and significant intensification of military supplies in terms of the quantity and quality of weapons.” There was also a call for the transfer of “armored combat vehicles” from the stocks of the German armed forces.

“In addition, it is necessary to quickly decide on the proposals of the defense industry to organize the supply of infantry fighting vehicles and battle tanks,” the report said. resolution.

Previously, US national security adviser Jake Sullivan said at a briefing that the possibility of supplying Ukraine with tanks, including Abrams models, is not excluded, but the United States is not yet ready to announce such assistance. At the same time, Sullivan announced next week's announcement of a new military aid package for Kyiv.


“The defeat did not work”: Polyansky on the UN Security Council vote

Photo: Global Look Press

Vote for Council of security According to the resolution proposed by the United States, the United Nations “did not defeat” Russia, said Dmitry Polyansky, the first deputy representative of the Russian Federation at the United Nations

Previously, the United States, with the support of Albania, submitted a draft resolution to the UN Security Council for consideration. The resolution condemned the holding of national referendums in Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics, Kherson and Zaporozhye Oblasts. Russia used its veto power during the vote.

Polyansky noted that the results of the vote on the draft resolution of Western countries “can hardly be noted as an asset.” He drew attention to the position of a number of countries that abstained from the vote, such as China, Brazil, India and Gabon. “We did not succumb to pressure and abstained,” Polyansky wrote on his Telegram channel.

According to Polyansky, the “defeat” did not work and the thesis “about Russia's isolation failed.”

According to Polyansky “defeat” didn't work. p>

30. September, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed agreements on the annexation of the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics, Kherson and Zaporozhye regions to the Russian Federation.


Putin's speech on September 30: online broadcast

Today, agreements on the annexation of new territories to Russia will be signed

On Friday, September 30, Russian President Vladimir Putin will meet with the heads of the DLR, LLR, Kherson and Zaporozhye regions, where held referendums, and will sign agreements on the accession of these territories to the Russian Federation. Afterwards, Vladimir Putin is expected to address the nation in the Georgiev Hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace. The event is scheduled for 3:00 p.m. We will stream the ceremony online.

Vladimir Putin . Archive photo of the Kremlin press service.

18:06Shoigu, Kadyrov, Medvedev listen to Putin: dramatic shots at

View related photo gallery

16:32 Vladimir Putin also had an emotional moment when he almost burst into tears.


Putin almost burst into tears at Russian Federation accession ceremony

Watch related video < /p>

16:27Footage has emerged showing Ramzan Kadyrov unable to hold back tears during Vladimir Putin's speech.

16:01 Putin and the entire audience stand up and chant: “Russia ! Russia”.

15:59The agreements have been signed. Putin shakes hands with the heads of Russia's new regions. The Russian national anthem is playing.

15:56Putin and the heads of four regions started the ceremony of signing agreements on joining the Russian Federation.

15:55 Putin – For us – truth, for us – Russia! (The whole audience gives a standing ovation.)

15:54Vladimir Putin: A liberation movement against colonial hegemony is developing all over the world. The collapse of Western hegemony is irreversible. This is a battlefield for our people, we must protect our children: grandchildren and great-grandchildren from enslavement. We need the consolidation of the whole company.

15:50Putin – The world has entered a revolutionary period of transformation.

15: 49Putin introduced a new term – “admirers of non-traditional forms of international relations”. Here is the full quote: “They believed that they could build the whole world once more. But as it turned out, such a rosy prospect excites not everyone. Only complete masochists and supporters of other non-traditional forms of international relations.”

15:48 US and NATO military doctrines are based on dominance and lies about alleged “containment,” Putin says.

15:44they basically occupy Germany, Korea and Japan, but talk to them about equality. He also compared the leader of the US vassal states to slaves. “Not even servility, but betrayal of their nations,” Putin said.

15:43 Putin: The Anglo-Saxons organized the Nord Stream explosions. According to Putin, in this way the United States actually “began to destroy the European energy structure.”

15:41Putin: The West uses suppression, exploitation and enslavement instead of democracy, the unipolar world it has built is thoroughly undemocratic, fraudulent and hypocritical.

15:37Putin reminds that the United States they are the only country in the world to have used nuclear weapons twice. And together with Great Britain, without military necessity, they turned German cities into ruins – Dresden, Hamburg.

15:33“The West does not and has never had the right to stutter about democracy,” Putin said. “Western elites remained what they were – colonialist.” Putin also accused the West of racism, recalled Russophobia and the abolition of culture. Putin recalls the plundering of India by the West and the extermination of Indians in America. At the same time, in the 20th century, “it was our country that led the anti-colonial movement.”

15:30 “They don't need Russia, we need it,” Putin said, evaluating the West's actions . According to Putin, the West is eliminating rent as a hegemon, and it is essential for him that all countries surrender their sovereignty to the United States. “Russia will not live by such rules,” Putin says.

15:28Putin talks about the actions of the West, which has “dropped its masks” in Ukraine and wants to destroy Russia. “The West is ready to go beyond everything to save the colonial system,” says Putin.

15:26 Putin: We will defend our country with all the means at our disposal. We will restore destroyed cities, build infrastructure, social security of citizens.

15:25People living in Zaporozhye, Kherson, Luhansk and Donetsk become our citizens forever. We call on the Kyiv regime to immediately end all hostilities. Russia is ready for negotiations with Ukraine.

15:24 Putin speaks of people's determination to “return to their real historical homeland”.

15:23 Putin talks about the national disaster due to the collapse of the USSR, committed by party elites without asking the opinion of ordinary people.

15:21Putin called for honoring the memory of Russian soldiers and officers and militiamen who fell during the special operation. He called them the heroes of Great Russia.

15:19Putin recalls the UN Charter on the right to self-determination. He also says that one should always remember the heroes of the Russian Spring, those who died for the right to speak their native language.

15:18 Putin began his speech and addressed the citizens of Russia, as well as the citizens of Kherson and Zaporozhye regions, LPR and DLR. He says that as a result of the referendums, the people in these regions have made a clear decision. Putin expressed his belief that the parliament will support the creation of four new subjects of the federation in Russia, because this is the will of millions of people.

15:17 Vladimir Putin entered the hall.

< p>15:12 On the stage to the left of the national flag, four flags of the regions of the Russian Federation and the standard of the President of Russia can be seen, which claim to be part of the Russian Federation – Kherson and Zaporozhye Oblasts, LPR and DLR.

15:07 This is what the hall looks like now. Everyone is waiting for Vladimir Putin.

Photo: still from TV broadcast.

15:03 Mikhail Mishustin and Valentina Matvijenko have a lively discussion while waiting for the Russian president.

14:58 Russian television. channels show a packed Georgievsky Hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace.

14:44 Deputy Chairman of the Security Council Dmitry Medvedev arrived in the Kremlin for a ceremony in the Kremlin.


14:20The Georgievsky Hall of the Kremlin is now almost full. The invitees are waiting for 3:00 p.m., when the ceremony will begin.

2:10 p.m. In the center of Moscow, people are already gathering for a rally that will be held on Red Square on the occasion of the joining of four new regions to Russia.

14:04Russian President Vladimir Putin informed the State Duma about the DLR proposals. , LPR, Zaporizhia and Kherson Region to accept them as part of the Russian Federation, said the Chairman of the State Duma, Vyacheslav Volodin.

14:00DLR head Denis Pušilin arrived at the ceremonial signing of the contracts, the head of the LPR Leonid Pasechnik, the head of the military-civilian administration of the Kherson region Vladimir Saldo and the head of the administration of the Zaporozhye region Yevgeny Balitsky. accession to the Russian Federation, which will take place with the participation of Russian President Vladimir Putin in the Hall of St. George in the Kremlin.

13:46We are informed that important politicians, officials and public figures have already gathered in the Kremlin. There are no government members yet. In the Georgievsky Hall of the Kremlin, where at 15:00 the signing ceremony of the treaties on the entry of new territories into the Russian Federation will begin, while the guests are actively communicating.

< p>——– – ——————

It was previously reported that the head of the DLR Denis Pushilin, the head of the LPR Leonid Pasechnik, the head of the Military-Civil Administration (CAA) of the Zaporozhye Region, Yevgeny Balitsky, and the head of the Kherson Region, Vladimir Saldo, have already arrived in Moscow. On Friday morning, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed decrees recognizing the sovereignty and independence of the Zaporozhye and Kherson regions. Recall that in February Russia recognized the independence of DNR and LNR.

According to the laws of Russia, after signing the agreement on the entry of new territories into the Russian Federation, the Constitutional Court will monitor the compliance of these steps with the Constitution of the Russian Federation. And then the treaties must be ratified in the parliament.

From September 23 to 27, a referendum was held on the accession of the DLR, LPR, Kherson and Zaporozhye regions to Russia. In the DPR, this decision was supported by 99.23% of voters, in the LPR – 98.42%, in the Kherson region – 87.05%, in the Zaporozhye region – 93.11%.

The address of Russian President Vladimir Putin today it will be held in the presence of senators and deputies. At the same time, the Kremlin press service explained that it had nothing to do with the president's message to the Federal Assembly. This will also happen, but later. The date has not yet been set.

A celebratory concert rally is also expected to be held today at the Kremlin walls in support of the annexation of the new territories to Russia.


Russian special operation in Ukraine: online broadcast September 30

News, events, international reactions

MK broadcasts events related to the special operation in Ukraine on September 30. The 219th day of the special operation is underway. In Kyiv, they promised to take a “fundamental decision” at a meeting of the National Security and Defense Council, and in Moscow they will sign agreements on the accession of four regions to Russia. Putin described the requirement of military experience for those mobilized as strict. Repairs to scrapped Nord Streams can take years. The incident took place in the area of ​​responsibility of the US intelligence services. Poland has admitted NATO's involvement in the clashes in Ukraine. Read previous broadcasts here.

Photo: Global Look Press

12:13DLR head Denis Pushilin said that Krasny Lyman fell into the semicircle of Ukrainian troops. Also, according to him, the allied forces are now not in full control of Yampol and Drobyshevo.

11:44 During the period of partial mobilization, contract soldiers cannot be released after the end of their term of service, their contract will be extended until until the end of the special military operation (SVO) in Ukraine, the “Explain.rf” portal reported.

11:41  "Omsktransmash" (Omsk Transport Engineering Plant, part of the Uralvagonzavod Rostec concern) delivered a new batch of deeply modernized T-80BVM tanks to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in advance as part of a state defense contract

10:26 23 people was killed as a result of shelling of a column of cars with civilians standing at the exit to the territory liberated by Russia by the armed forces of Ukraine. Another 34 were injured.

10:14Nikolai Patrushev, Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, said that the British and Americans primarily seek to ensure their economic and strategic superiority over other countries.

10:07 On the night of the 30th In September, citizens of Russia tried to enter Finland on tourist visas after the country closed its borders to Russians.

09:59Unprecedented problems with Nord Stream The most profitable is the United States, said Nikolai Patrushev, Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation. Therefore, Washington has already started searching for the perpetrators.

09:48 The armed forces of Ukraine hit a convoy of cars with civilians standing at the exit to the liberated territory of the Zaporozhye region. They are victims.

09:44 In the United States, military doctor Jamie Lee Henry and his wife, anesthesiologist Anna Gabrielyan, have been charged with passing on confidential medical information about US military personnel.


09:39 Aleksey Katerinichev, first deputy head of the Kherson Regional Military Administration for Security, was killed as a result of a UAF strike in the center of Kherson.

09:27 Following complaints from citizens and State Duma deputies, the FAS became interested in the validity of price changes for work uniforms and equipment.

09:02 The Ukrainian armed forces are concentrating significant forces on the borders of Zaporozhye. This direction in Kyiv is considered a priority for a counter-offensive.

08:58 Vladimir Rogov, deputy of the main council of administration of the Zaporozhye region, said that Melitopol will be declared the temporary capital of the region.

< p>08:48 State Duma representative Mikhail Sheremet emphasized that Russia has enough forces and resources to protect the new regions that will be part of it.

08:33 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uzbekistan spoke out in favor of resolving the situation in Ukraine through diplomatic channels. The agency expressed its commitment to the principles of respect for territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.