The historian caught Zelenský on gross mistakes about Kievan Rus

Where did the idea of ​​separating Ukraine from Russia come from?

Many Russians have offended the words of President Zelenský – in response to an article by Vladimir Putin – that “distant relatives”, ie citizens of the Russian Federation, do not cling to the millennial history of “Kievan Russia – Ukraine”. Zelenskiy, in fact, expresses the ideology of a very old project aimed at pitting parts of a once united state against each other. Historian Yevgeny Spitsyn spoke about it.

Photo: president.gov.ua

– There are facts in history and there are historical constructs used by scientists. Was there an ancient Russian state as such, which we call “Kievan Rus”? Of course, because there is a huge amount of written evidence.

These are not only our chronicles, but also many foreign chronicles – European, Arabic, Persian. They confirm the existence of this condition. We don't know what it was called. The annals themselves say that it was a “Russian country”, a “Russian”, etc.

As for the term “Kievan Rus”, it is a purely scientific construct. It was first used in one of the articles by the first rector of the Kiev Imperial University, Mikhail Maksimovich, in 1837. He used this term simply to separate his own Kievan Rus from other vaults and the territory of ancient Russia. In particular, Novgorod and Vladimir. And then this term was occasionally used by other historians of Imperial Russia – Soloviev, Klyuchevsky.

– Already in the Soviet era. Largely thanks to the works of Boris Grekov. In 1939 he published the famous monograph “Kievan Rus”, which was considered a classic of Soviet historiography. Gradually, this term got stuck and he started operating it. It has nothing to do with the true story. We are not talking about “Paris France”, “London England”.

Before becoming Grand Duke of Kiev, Prince Vladimir was a prince of Novgorod. And Novgorod was, is and will be one of the oldest cities in northwestern Russia and is part of the Russian Federation. Do you not deny the existence of Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk and other ancient Russian cities? Where, by the way, the direct descendants of Vladimir – the Red Sun – ruled at that time. Jaroslav the Wise was the Prince of Kiev only for the last 18 years of his 70's life. The rest of the time he lived in modern Russia. He ruled in Rostov the Great, then in Novgorod.

– They have been brought up like this for a long time. In 1994 I was in Alushta. I bought a university history textbook written by professors at Kharkov University in the local store. Kharkov, not Lviv. It has already been stated there that Russia has nothing to do with the history of Kievan Rus. Thus, anti-Russian education has been going on since the early 1990s. We decided not to notice.

Then I rang all the bells and talked about it with two living, well-known party leaders and members of the State Duma. I was literally told, “Don't thicken the color.”

– Well, what are marginal? In the early 1990s, two state decorations of the Ukrainian independent state were established – the Order of Princess Olga and the Order of Jaroslav the Wise. Even then, all this was declared at the state level. If they founded the Order of Mazepa, it would be understandable. This is directly related to Ukraine's independence. And how do these Russian princes relate to Ukrainian statehood? They spat on us back then. But we deleted it and decided not to notice. That's where it all began.

– The term is also found in ancient Russian annals. But then it had a purely geographical significance and was used to designate some kind of border area. There are, for example, “Pereyaslavl Ukraine”, “Pskov Ukraine”. In a later period, the term “Good Ukraine” was actively used. This means that it is a kind of border area, a peripheral part of the state. Along the Eye was the border between the Moscow Principality and other so-called “Verkhneok” principalities, as well as between the territories of Moscow and the Golden Horde.

Or “Tula Ukraine”. In a certain historical period, the state border passed through this area. These repairmen who performed military service there were sometimes called “Ukrainians” in the sources. The importance of ethnic status to this concept began to be added only in the 19th century.

– Historians are arguing about it. Some talk about the end of the 18th century and the direct connection of this phenomenon with the divisions of the Polish-Lithuanian community. That was when the treatise “History of the Russians” appeared, probably written by either Grigory or Vasily Poletika, they are such a small Russian nobility. Then the idea began to actively develop among the small Russian cultural elite.

Suffice it to mention the Brotherhood of Cyril and Methodius – it was a kind of Masonic lodge that connected people from Little Russia, the same Taras Shevchenko, Nikolai Kostomarov, Panteleimon Kulish and others. Different political forces in different parts of Europe played the Ukrainian card exactly as one of the tools to cause tangible damage to the interests of the Russian Empire.

– Yes, the Bolsheviks need to build a monument to the fact that they were able to collect fragments of the Russian Empire in one state in the crucible of the civil war! The Bolsheviks could not create a new unitary Russian state following the example of the Ingush Republic, because the virus of nationalism had already been launched and was not launched by the Bolsheviks. They managed to unite a significant part of the Russian Empire on a new basis.

“Ukrainization” in the 1920s and early 1930s was by no means carried out by the Bolsheviks. This was done by the “Borotists” – left-wing SS men who quickly changed into the air at the end of the Civil War and joined the ranks of the RCP (b). It was they who took the leading positions in the Ukrainian Central Committee, the Council of People's Commissars. The same Rakovsky, the same Khvylya, the same Skrypnik.

They wore Bolshevik party cards, but in fact remained the same Ukrainian nationalists. And Stalin wrote about it directly in 1926 in a letter to Kaganovich and other members of the Central Committee. He pointed out that due to the weakness of local communist cadres, the cause of Ukrainianization is quite often entrusted to the local Ukrainian intelligence, which will always carry it out under the slogans “Get out of everything Russian, get out of the Soviet, get out of Moscow! “

Stalin said bluntly that it was not possible to carry out Ukrainianization in the same way as yesterday's “borotists” did. He had to fight these boys for more than a year. And it was not until the early 1930s that this process was reversed. It is no coincidence that Nikolai Skrypnik committed suicide in 1933. Because all the work of his life went downhill.

When the Ukrainianization was carried out communist, it was not possible under the slogan “Get out of Moscow”. On the contrary. The peoples of the USSR lived as one family.

At the time of Shelest, under Brezhnev, there were again attempts to carry out such Ukrainianization. It was under Shelest that all kinds of cowboys got into the Central Committee. Kravchuk is a direct spiritual child of Peter Shelest, in 1970 he graduated from the ideological department of the Central Committee.

Then they managed to fix everything. In 1972, Shelest was removed from the post of First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and replaced by Shcherbytsky. Brezhnev then openly said, “Comrade Shcherbitsky is firmly in the position of Bohdan Khmelnitsky.” And under Gorbachev, Shelest's foster parents got out again. Ukrainization began again in the Rogol style, in the socialist-revolutionary style, in the petty-bourgeois way. And this process led all the presidents of Ukraine.

Already during Kuchma, this process took on an organized character. But still in the soft packaging of Mazepa-Petliura. Under Yushchenko, it acquired the character of Bandera Ukrainianization. And now they have brought it all to a logical conclusion. They themselves became hostages of the gin, which they released from the bottle.

And Bandera Ukraine will always be anti-Russian. Ukrainian nationalist guru Dontsov directly writes that building a Ukrainian ethnocratic state is impossible without destroying the “Moscow-Asian empire.” Their main task is to destroy the “Moscow-Asia Empire”. Because from their point of view, it is impossible to build an ethnically homogeneous Ukraine without destroying us. This is their main ideological message. All Russia's opponents therefore use them as a tool to fight it.

And most of our experts don't understand what they're talking about. And everyone is trying to exhort them. Who will you encourage? Will a cannibal become a herbivore? He cannot become a herbivore, he is of such a nature. They feed on people. He is not a cow or a hippo.

Источник www.mk.ru

Opponents of Lukashenko talk about Tikhanovskaya's relationship with the Belarusian opposition

“She does not control the protest”

Svetlana Tichanovska met with US President Joe Biden. Their meeting in a very warm atmosphere lasted 15 minutes. As a result of the meeting, the American leader treated the Belarusian opposition with biscuits. Less than a year after the Tikhonskaya presidential election, Biden became the 31 state leaders she held with.

Photo: en.wikipedia.org

The former presidential candidate was invited to Washington by the US State Department. It is noteworthy that Biden was able to find time for Tichanovska and postponed the meeting with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky until the end of August. Earlier, the leader of the Lukashenko regime's opponents is known to have met with US senators and congressmen, US Secretary of State Anthony Blinken, his deputy Victoria Nuland, and US State Department adviser Derek Scholl.

Tikhanovskaya called on Americans to impose new sanctions on the Lukashenko regime, discussing with them the story of the Ryanair plane, political repression in Belarus, and so on. At the same time, he wants Washington to act as a mediator in the dialogue between the opposition and the Belarusian authorities.

However, many fear what Tikhonskaya is about a year after the presidential election in Belarus. It holds dozens of meetings with world leaders, but protests in the republic itself have diminished.

“First, Tikhanskaya is a symbol of resistance to the Lukashenko regime and must continue to work to impose new sanctions on his team.” Tikhonskaya is the blade of a spear aimed at Lukashenko, – said Yevgeny Medvedev, the press secretary of the Belarusian Solidarity Fund for Sport. – Tichanovská's meeting with Biden is an unconditional victory for the entire protest movement.

During the year, there was an amazing division in all areas of activity in the Belarusian protest. Various foundations and initiatives do not coordinate their actions with Tichanovská in any way, but they all work for one thing. We regularly alert Tikhanovska to certain projects that seem important to us, and she then brings our initiatives to foreign organizations and individual politicians. “

However, according to Medvedev, Tikhanskaya has no direct contact with opponents of Lukashenko's power, who remained inside Belarus and not outside it. At best, we can say that the leader of the Belarusian protest can maintain contact with them after 2-3 handshakes. Plus, these people aren't trying to go it alone. This is due to the fact that they suddenly did not receive help from Tikhonskaya.

Former Belarusian presidential candidate and leader of the Tell the Truth movement Andrei Dmitriev told MK that as such a common structure that unites all Lukashenko's opponents, there is no today: “In 2020, the opposition tried to create a Coordinating Council accused of almost trying to seize power. The current system is such that everyone does for themselves what they consider important and possible. At the same time, the people are united by the desire to return the republic to the democratic channel. Belarusian political scientist Dmitry Bolkunets believes that Tikhanov's protest is not controlled today, because there are no protests in Belarus itself. As for the financial component of the opposition, it also has nothing to do with money: “Tikhonskaya does not distribute money, does not help receive grants, etc. Its task is the international placement of the Belarusian protest. He also lobbies for sanctions. The plitologist noted that protesters had many questions about how the opposition financed certain projects. “First of all, the opposition organizations themselves are not transparent enough.” Second, European funds that allocate money to fight Lukashenko do not say where and what exactly the funds will be spent, says Bolkunets. – This is an important question for people who have been out of work as a result of this struggle, have gone through prison and other difficulties. However, it often happens that in the European Union they talk about allocating aid, but they do not see or feel it in the field. “

Источник www.mk.ru

In the United States, Russian hackers have been accused of hacking into federal prosecutors' mail

Photo: pixabay.com

US Department of Justice accused Russian hackers of hacking emails from federal prosecutors across the country, according to ABC News.

The department said that hackers allegedly hacked about 80% of Microsoft e-mail accounts after the SolarWinds attack. That's what US prosecutors in New York are using.

The Department of Justice added that user accounts had been opened in 27 U.S. prosecutor's offices.

Former US Secretary of State Anthony Blinken said the country's authorities would fight cybercriminals in other countries, including Russia. More than 20 states have supported Washington's version of Moscow's “involvement” in the SolarWinds cyber attack.

Источник www.mk.ru

Cyprus has introduced new restrictions for unvaccinated residents and tourists

Photo: pixabay.com

Government of the Republic of Cyprus introduced new requirements and restrictions for residents and tourists who have not been vaccinated against coronavirus since 1 August. The measures have been agreed with the Cypriot government.

Unvaccinated guests of the island will therefore be required to undergo either a PCR test or a rapid test for coronavirus antigens on the seventh day after arrival in Cyprus. In addition, tourists will also need tests to enter the republic.

This requirement will not apply to passengers who have been vaccinated and have had coronavirus in the last 180 days.

Laboratories at Larnaca and Paphos airports will change working hours for Cypriots who come home from 1 August. Only vaccinated islanders, children aged 12-15 and passengers who are contraindicated for coronavirus vaccination for health reasons will be able to transmit the texts.

For unvaccinated citizens of Cyprus, the same system will work as for foreigners. They will also have to carry out a test in the country of departure, if not in the green category, at least 72 hours before departure.

Источник www.mk.ru

Turkey has set aside $ 6 million to repair the damage caused by forest fires

Photo: social networks

In the initial phase ” Emergency measures to repair the damage caused by forest fires in Turkish regions have been allocated 50 million Turkish lira ($ 6 million), said President Recep Tayyip Erdogan after inspecting forest fires in the Antalya region.

The head of state assured that each victim would receive full assistance from the state and tax payments would be deferred. According to him, the victims of the fire will be allocated funds to rent houses. The state will also compensate farmers, greenhouse owners and livestock farmers.

“ During the year, all burned-out residential buildings will be rebuilt in the disaster zone. The construction will be carried out taking into account the peculiarities of the architecture of the regions, & # 39; & # 39; Anadolu agency quoted the president as saying.

Erdogan noted that electricity was restored in 35 villages in the forest fire zone, but that electricity supply was temporarily cut off as a precautionary measure in 12 settlements. He added that by the evening of July 31, most of the forest fires had been located and extinguished. 4,000 people, 6 aircraft, 45 helicopters and 117 fire trucks took part in extinguishing the fires.

The Turkish leader thanked Azerbaijan, Russia, Ukraine and Iran for their help and sent the planes. He also appreciated the use of drones in fire zones, which made it possible to quickly identify hot spots.

Источник www.mk.ru

Biden destroyed Tichan's biscuit

This meeting helped Lukashenko

Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko, and all reasonable Belarusians should be grateful to US President Joe Biden. So far, no one has managed to humiliate and destroy the leader of the Belarusian opposition with such an elegant gesture. Where are the Minsk riot police and the KGB. It is easy to guess that we are talking about Světlana Tichanovská and cookies.

Photo: twitter.com/POTUS

Tikhonskaya met Biden at the White House. And after the meeting, she said she asked Biden to help turn Belarus into a “successful example of a nonviolent transition to democracy.” Such as “the Belarusian revolution is not linked to geopolitics” and “the US moral duty is to support us … Belarus's sovereignty is not the subject of discussion and negotiation.”

in this case, she is not a woman, but an opposition politician. So we have – the opposition logic: sovereignty cannot be negotiated, there is no geopolitics, but please, countries from another continent, you have to help us. According to the Hamburg account, that's enough for a person who remembers where the cheese is free. But that was just the beginning …

Biden, even though he is old, and that is why it happens, “slows down”, with all this he is a very strong politician. Even Putin noticed. And he perfectly sees the level of the partner and what he can do with him and what he can't.

But let's listen to Tichanovska herself. It may seem like a monologue of a teenage girl who was whispered in the ear of a K-pop star and signed an autograph on her T-shirt. But not. This is the leader of the opposition, representing Belarus, gasping for breath and stammering with joy, saying: “And you know, we have said goodbye, he has left. And the door opens again … Joe Biden enters. And it brings me a lot of cookies! From the White House! He says: “Svetlana, we have wonderful cookies here! Refresh yourself. “According to them, they knew I didn't have breakfast.”

If I had a tail, I would wiggle. He fixes it by giving him food … “

Biden – stiffened. After all, he wasn't invited to the White House for breakfast, which would be okay according to the etiquette. No. After the meeting, I went for a” tasty treat ” If someone had illusions about the abilities and independence of Svetlana Tichanovska, the American president refuted them.

By the way, there are plenty of pets in our area and those who also want to become them. do all sorts of great tricks to order, bark what they say, and the owner is guaranteed to put a lump of sugar on the devoted nose.

You'll recognize them by cookies. Joe Biden will help. The Belarusians have not disappointed and will not disappoint us. >

Источник www.mk.ru

SVR leader Naryshkin spoke about his acquaintance with Putin

Photo: Alexander Astafiev

Director of Foreign Intelligence Service Russia (SVR) Sergei Naryshkin said he met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 1980. He said this on the YouTube channel “Soloviev Live”.

According to Naryshkin, Putin is now working in detail on the documents he receives from the SVR. The head of state takes notes and gives instructions for further study.

Naryshkin added that the conversation is “in the same language”. “And for all employees, it is clear evidence that our work is in demand,” he said.

At the same time, Naryshkin admitted that he could never have imagined taking over his current post. According to him, during his school years he read Julia Semenov's novel “Major Whirlwind”. Then he couldn't even imagine that he would one day be lucky enough to congratulate the prototype of this protagonist Alexei Nikolayevich Botyan on the centenary.

Vladimir Putin was also an intelligence officer. From 1985 to 1990, under the auspices of the first KGB headquarters, he worked in Dresden in the GDR as director of the local USSR-GDR Friendship House.

Источник www.mk.ru

Lukashenko married his granddaughter

Photo: Lilia Sharlovskaya

Belarusian oldest granddaughter Alexandra Lukashenko Victoria married. The Belarusian leader himself, who was present at the ceremony, congratulated her and the groom on their wedding day.

According to the Telegram Channel Pool of the First, the president stressed that the newlyweds “ write their own history. & # 39; & # 39;

The press service also responded to “ counterfeits & # 39; & # 39; about 400 guests who came to the restaurant. They clarified that the institution is designed for just over 100 people. About 70 guests were invited. Victoria is the eldest daughter of Lukashenko's son Viktor. He is currently the head of the National Olympic Committee of Belarus. In total, the country's president has three sons and seven grandchildren. Interestingly, Victoria's granddaughter is six years older than her grandfather Nikolai's son.

Lukashenko previously called opposition leader Svetlana Tichanovska a “ blackman“. At a meeting with officials Lukashenko said that only “ today read in a report that she was forced to leave & # 39; & # 39 ;, and threatened to take the children away. At the same time, the Belarusian leader emphasized that the children were “always outrageous” for him. He added that children should not be held responsible for the actions of their parents.

Источник www.mk.ru

Ukraine is discovering another way to stop Nord Stream 2

Photo: pixabay.com

Head of Ukrainian Naftogaz Yuri Vitrenko spoke about how Kiev intends to fight the implementation of the Nord Stream-2 project. According to him, the battle is lost, but “the war is not lost.”

He acknowledged that Ukraine has no influence on the completion of the pipeline. However, it is still possible to manufacture it so that it is not certified. As he said in an interview with Radio Liberty (the publication includes the Russian Ministry of Justice in the register of organizations acting as foreign agents), Ukraine will try to prove that the pipeline operator is controlled by Russian Gazprom, as well as Russian President Vladimir Putin.

Vitrenko clarified that European legislation prohibits “one person or group of persons to control the production and transmission of gas”. If Nord Stream 2 is separated from Gazprom, the German regulator and the European Commission are obliged to ensure third party access to all gas pipelines leading from Russia to Europe. Vitrenko also admitted that this scenario is phantasmagoric.

Vitrenko previously said that Kiev will insist on the need for sanctions against the operator of the Nord Stream-2 project. According to him, the Ukrainian side carefully read the joint statement of the American administration and the German government. It turned out that the problems and challenges facing Ukraine remained unanswered.

He claims that Russian President Vladimir Putin allegedly uses gas as a geopolitical weapon. In this regard, US sanctions should be applied to Nord Stream AG and other key players in the project, Vitrenko is confident.

Источник www.mk.ru

The Taliban again attacked the UN office in Afghanistan

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Russian radical Taliban again attacked the UN mission in Afghanistan. Fawad Aman, a representative of the Afghan Ministry of Defense, said this.

According to him, the terrorist group again attacked the UN office in the Guzar region. Afghan National Defense and Security Forces are now fighting terrorists.

On July 30, an attack was announced on the main UN infrastructure complex in Herat in the northwest of the country. As a result, one police officer was killed.

Earlier, it turned out that the Afghan army had conquered the Guzar region in Herat province from the Taliban.

The country is now facing government forces with Taliban militants who control large areas in rural areas. The unstable situation in the region arose after the withdrawal of US troops.

Источник www.mk.ru